India women education

Analysis and interpretation of the study of women education in Arunachal Pradesh

Part 3

This part presents the analysis of data collected and their interpretation as per objectives. The main objectives of the study have been further splitted as per the variables involved in the study.

Historical Development of women education in Arunachal Pradesh

The history of educational development in Arunachal Pradesh reveals that the system of formal education was almost absent before 1947. The literacy rate was recorded below one per cent. Which reveals the literacy rate was zero per cent in case of women before independence. The growth and development of educational institutions started from the year 1951 onwards in the state. Table 1 indicates the growth of the educational institution, teachers and students from 1951-1956.

Table 1: Growth of Educational Institutions, Teachers and Students in Arunachal Pradesh (1951-52 and 1955-56)

Year Schools Teachers Students
LP ME Sec LP ME Sec LP ME Sec
1951-52 67 1 120 6 2674 34
1955-56 152 16 3 359 88 26 7105 310 87

Source: Statistical Outline of NEFA, April 1964.

The Table 2 indicates that the number of educational institutions, teachers and enrolment of students increased rapidly from the year 1951 to the year 1955 and the beginning of education in Arunachal Pradesh may be taken into account from this period onward.

Table 2: Growth Rate of Enrolment at Primary Level in Percentage

States 1957-1965 1973-78 1978-86
Arunachal Pradesh 53.29 97.25 78.16
Assam 16.47 25.14 44.24
Manipur 53.25 7.95 6.43
Meghalaya 10.92 16.46 36.57
Mizoram 11.61 1.69 51.63
Nagaland 5.64 18.50 23.92
Tripura 16.97 9.95 86.14

Source: All India Educational Surveys 1957-1993, New Delhi, NCERT.

Though good numbers of educational institutions were established and the enrolment rate had also been increased in the state, but there were many disparities in terms of female literacy and enrolment. In 1986, the district East Kameng had a female literacy rate of 2.88 and the enrolment ratio was 27 per cent, despite 55.04 per cent of the population had primary school facilities. Girls enrolment has been increased substantially in the state between 1986-1993, yet data on drop-out of girls shows that the participation of the girl child in women education was far from satisfactorily especially at the primary and elementary level (Roy Jayashree, 2005).

In Arunachal Pradesh there was no educational institution except for a few monastic training centers in undivided Kameng district of the state, which too was meant only for male members and monks. Females are not allowed to stay there. As already indicated the rate of female literacy was extremely low among the Scheduled Tribe population. The low female literacy is attributable to the peculiar way of life of the people and particularly to the orthodox standards they hold regarding status of women in the society. Girls are engaged in domestic work at home by their parents. Social factors like early marriage and parental apathy for women education restricts them to go to school.

Although the numbers of school-going girls are much less than that of the boys, the women education is progressing gradually. With the opening of schools with better women educational facilities and the development that are taking place throughout the state, the people are now becoming more and more conscious, they value women education as much as males. In many areas, the people are coming forward to send girls to school. Because of this reason, the gap of female literacy between all India literacy rate and Arunachal Pradesh narrowed with 5.96 per cent in 2012 from 10.46 per cent in 2001. The female literacy rate of the state is 59.6 per cent (2012) which is higher than many states of the country like, Bihar, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.

Women Education Problems faced by Girl Students at Secondary and Senior Secondary School Level

The percentage of responses of girl students at secondary and senior secondary levels relating to various problems at school and home is shown in Table 3 The first problem in the table is about transportation facilities. Only 29 per cent girl students are getting transportation facilities and the rest 71 per cent are without transportation facilities. Regarding evaluation policy, 77.6 per cent showed satisfaction and 22.4 per cent showed dissatisfaction.

Table 3: Problems Shown by Secondary and Senior Secondary Girl Students of Tawang, East Siang, West Kameng and Papumpare Districts Arunachal Pradesh

Sl. No Problems of Girl Students Yes (%) No (%)
1 Transportation facility 29 71
2 Evaluation policy 77.6 22.4
3 Co-educational schools 95 5
4 Impact of patriarchal society 53 47
5 Mobility 33 67
6 Domestic work 80 20
7 Facilities 59.2 40.8
8 Syllabus 66.4 33.6
9 Method of teaching 76 24
10 Co-curricular 98 2
11 Subjects 86 14
12 Discipline 57.6 42.4
13 Scholarship 43 57
14 Tuition 46.5 53.5

The third problem is about parents’ attitude towards sending their girls to a co-educational institution. 95 per cent parents do not want to send their girl child to the co-educational institution; on the other hand, 5 per cent do not have any problem sending their girl child to a co-educational institution. Therefore, more girls’ school needs to be opened in the state. It has been found from the table, that 53 per cent of girls face a problem because of patriarchal society, whereas 47 per cent do not have any problem. Further, the table indicates that 33 per cent of girls have a restriction on their mobility; whereas 67 per cent does not have a restriction. Regarding domestic work, only 20 per cent does not help their parents. Rest 80 per cent of the girls are compelled to help their parents in domestic works. 59.2 per cent girls are happy with the facilities they are getting in school on the other hand 40.8 per cent are not happy. The next problem shown in the table is about syllabus; 66.4 per cent are satisfied with the present syllabus and the rest, 33.6 per cent are not satisfied.

Relating to methods of teaching in secondary and senior secondary level, 76 per cent girls are happy and 24 per cent shown unhappiness. 98 per cent girls responded that they participate in co-curricular activities in school. The table also indicates that 86 per cent girls are satisfied with the choice of subjects in the class and only 24 per cent are not satisfied with the subject option. Further, 57.6 per cent shows that they have strict disciplinary value and 42.4 per cent do not have strict disciplinary value. Regarding scholarship 43 per cent, girls responded that they are getting a scholarship and it gives reinforcement for further studies 46.5 per cent showed that they are getting tuition facilities at home on the other hand 53.5 per cent are without tuition facilities.Attitude of Teachers and Parents towards Girls’ Education in Arunachal Pradesh

Hypothesis 1: There is a significant difference in the attitude of male and female teachers towards women  education in Arunachal Pradesh.

To test the hypothesis t-value was calculated and the result is given below:

Male Female t-value
M1 = 62.7 M2 = 65.4 0.43
SD1 = 2.0 SD2 = 1.6

The t-value of teachers attitude towards women education in Arunachal Pradesh reveals that there is no difference in the attitude of male and female teachers. From the mean score, it was found that both male and female teacher have a moderately favorable attitude towards women education.

Hypothesis 2: There is a significant difference in the attitude of male and female parents towards women  education in Arunachal Pradesh.

To test the hypothesis t-value was calculated and the result is given below:

Male Female t-value
M1 = 59.2 M2 = 69.6 2.34
SD1 = 1.3 SD2 = 1.28

Computed t-value is significant at .01 level of confidence, as the computed t-value is lesser than the criterion t-value (2.34). This reflects that there is a significant difference in the attitude of parents (male and  female) towards women education. Thus, the hypothesis of the study is accepted and it is interpreted that the females have more favourable attitude towards women education in Arunachal Pradesh.

Analysis and interpretation of the study of women education in Arunachal Pradesh
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