Findings and conclusion of the study of women education in Arunachal Pradesh

Findings and conclusion of the study of women education in Arunachal Pradesh

Part 4

Difference in the Enrolment of Girl Students at different School Level

To find out the differences in the enrolment in different districts of Arunachal Pradesh, t-value was computed and the findings reveals that there is a significant difference in the enrolment of tribal girl students at elementary level in East Siang and West Kameng, East Siang and Tawang, East Siang and Papumpare, West Kameng and Papumpare, Tawang and Papumpare, Tawang and West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. The enrolment of girls is much better in district East Siang and Papumpare in comparison to other sample districts of Arunachal Pradesh. In the case of enrolment of non-tribal girls, a significant difference was found between districts Papumpare and West Kameng, East Siang and Papumpare, Tawang and East Siang, Tawang and Papumpare. No difference was found between the districts East Siang and West Kameng. The Huge difference was found in the enrolment of non-tribal girl students at elementary school level between West Kameng and Tawang district.

Regarding the enrolment of girls at secondary and senior secondary level, it was revealed that there is a significant difference between the district Papumpare and West Kameng, East Siang and West Kameng, Papumpare and East Siang, Tawang and Papumpare, Tawang and East Siang. No difference was found in the enrolment of tribal girls at secondary and senior secondary between the district West Kameng and Tawang. The computed t-value pertaining to the enrolment of non-tribal girl students at secondary and senior secondary school level found that all the districts have almost same enrolment rate accept the districts Papumpare and Tawang. A significant difference was found in the case of these two districts. The mean score of Papumpare district was found much higher than Tawang district as hypothesized in the study.

Difference in the Wastage of Girls’ Students at different School Level

The result of wastage among tribal girl student at elementary school level reveals that there is a significant difference between districts East Siang and Papumpare, West Kameng and Papumpare, Papumpare and Tawang. When comparison was made between districts East Siang and West Siang, East Siang and Tawang East Siang and West Kameng, no difference was found. Regarding wastage among non-tribal girl students at elementary level, there is significant difference between the districts Papumpare and Tawang, Papumpare and East Siang, West Kameng and East Siang, Papumpare and West Kameng, on the other hand, the rate of wastage is almost same in the districts Tawang and West Kameng, Tawang and East Siang.

In case of Wastage among tribal girls at secondary and senior secondary level, significant difference between Papumpare and West Kameng, West Kameng and East Siang. In rest of the districts, no difference was found. Among non-tribal girl students, no difference is observed between the districts Tawang and East Siang, Tawang and West Kameng, Tawang and Papumpare, East Siang and west Kameng, Papumpare and West Kameng. A significant difference was found only in the districts Papumpare and East Siang. The wastage among non-tribal girls is much higher in the districts East Siang than Papumpare, Tawang and West Kameng.

Difference in the Stagnation of Girl Students at different School Level

To find out, the stagnation among girl students t-value was calculated. The calculated t-value of the districts Papumpare and East Siang, Papumpare and West Kameng, Papumpare and Tawang, East Siang and West Kameng, Tawang and West Kameng reveals that there is a significant difference in the stagnation among the tribal girl students at elementary school level. No differences were found between the districts East Siang and Tawang. The stagnation of tribal girls is almost same in these districts. In the case of non-tribal girls, no difference was found between the districts Tawang and West Kameng, on the other hand, a significant difference was found in the districts Tawang and Papumpare, East Siang and West Kameng, East Siang and Papumpare, Tawang and East Siang, West Kameng and Papumpare.

The stagnation among tribal girls at secondary and senior secondary level reveals that there is a significant difference between the districts Papumpare and West Kameng, Papumpare and Tawang, Papumpare and East Siang, West Kameng and East Siang whereas no difference was found between the districts West Kameng and Tawang, East Siang and Tawang. The rate of stagnation among the tribal girl students is almost same in these districts. Among non-tribal girls, it was found that, in the districts Papumpare and West Kameng, Tawang and West Kameng, there is a significant difference whereas, no difference was found in rest of the districts pertaining to stagnation of non-tribal girl students at secondary and senior secondary school level.

Problems of Girl Students at Elementary School Level

For covering the objective datas were collected from girl students studying in elementary schools. There are several kinds of problems, which the girl students have reflected.

The first problem was about the distance of the school 63.3 per cent girl shows that their school is far away from home and only 39.7 per cent girl students are getting transportation facilities, rest 60.9 are without transportation facility. It is clear that girls are facing many problems relating to transportation. Regarding library facilities, only 34.1 per cent showed their satisfaction, 65.9 per cent are dissatisfied with these facilities. Therefore, lack of a library is quite a serious problem in all districts. The third problem is about teachers, 81.6 per cent girl students showed that they have competent teachers, but they prefer female teachers. So, regarding competent teachers, girl students do not have much problem but they prefer female teachers. 52 per cent girl students indicate that they are satisfied with the present method of teaching whereas 48 per cent are not satisfied with the present method of teaching. 68.3 per cent showed preference to playway/other method of teaching and the rest 31.7 per cent does not prefer this method. The next problem is about teaching in the classroom; 55.8 per cent showed satisfaction with the teaching, 44.2 per cent are not satisfied. The medium of instruction is an important aspect. 79.1 per cent girl students are satisfied and 20.9 per cent are not satisfied with the present method of teaching.

Regarding syllabus, 56.6 per cent are satisfied with the present syllabus rest 43.4 per cent are dissatisfied. 72.5 per cent girl students show satisfaction with the present curriculum. Only 46 per cent girls revealed that they have drinking water and separate toilet facilities in the schools, rest 54 per cent don’t have. So, drinking water and separate toilet for girls is a serious issue which need immediate attention. 87.5 per cent girls revealed that they help their parents in domestic work, only 12.5 per cent are free. In the case of facilities, 82.5 per cent girls revealed that they are getting facilities like free uniform and books etc. 80.5 per cent girls revealed that they participate in co-curricular activities. Regarding discipline in the school, 67 per cent students revealed that their school is disciplined and they have to maintain strict discipline in the school. Finally, 63 per cent girls revealed that they get a scholarship and they are satisfied with the amount they are getting, whereas 37 per cent girls students are not getting a scholarship.

Problems of Girl Students at Secondary and Senior Secondary School level

The first problem is about transportation facilities. Only 29 per cent of girl students are getting transportation facilities and the rest 71 per cent are without transportation facilities. Regarding evaluation policy, 77.6 per cent showed satisfaction and 22.4 per cent showed dissatisfaction. The third problem is about parents’ attitude towards sending their girls to a co-educational institution. 95 percent parents do not want to send their girl child to the co-educational institution; on the other hand, 5 per cent do not have any problem sending their girl child to a co-educational institution. Therefore, more girls’ school needs to be opened in the state. It has been found that 53 per cent girls face a problem because of patriarchal society, whereas 47 per cent do not have any problem. Further, the result indicates that 33 per cent of girls have a restriction on their mobility; whereas 67 per cent does not have a restriction. Regarding domestic work, only 20 per cent does not help their parents. Rest 80 per cent of the girls are compelled to help their parents in domestic works. 59.2 per cent girls are satisfied with the facilities they are getting in school on the other hand 40.8 per cent are not satisfied. The next problem is about syllabus; 66.4 per cent are satisfied with the present syllabus and the rest, 33.6 per cent are not satisfied.

Relating to methods of teaching in secondary and senior secondary level, 76 per cent girls are happy and 24 per cent shown unhappiness. 98 per cent girls shown that they have co-curricular activities in school and only 2 per cent shown they do not have. The findings also indicate that 86 per cent girls are satisfied with the subject options and only 24 per cent are not satisfied with the subjects available in schools. Further, 57.6 per cent shows that they have strict disciplinary value and 42.4 per cent do not have strict disciplinary value. Regarding scholarship 43 per cent girls responded that they are getting a scholarship and it gives reinforcement for further study. 46.5 per cent showed that they have tuition facilities at home on the other hand 53.5 per cent are without tuition facilities.

Attitude of Teachers and Parents towards Women Education in Arunachal Pradesh

T-value reveals that there is no difference in the attitude of male and female teachers. The mean score of both male and female teacher reflects a favourable attitude towards women education. In the case of parents (male and female), a significant difference was found in their attitude towards women education.

Conclusion

On the basis of the above discussion it can be concluded that there is a significant difference in the enrolment, wastage and stagnation among tribal and non-tribal girl students at different school level in most of the sample districts. However, in some districts, no difference was found. Regarding problems of girl students at elementary, secondary and senior secondary level, several problems were revealed such as: transportation, library facilities, method of teaching, separate toilet and drinking water, etc. which needs immediate attention. It was also observed that the teachers and female parents have moderately favourable attitude towards tribal women education in the state. This finding is a positive sign since girl child were not normally encouraged for formal women education as compared to boys in the tribal community. The major reason is the engagement of daughters in the household” and agricultural activities. Daughters in the tribal community are treated as helping hands for their mothers. Even if they are sent to school, they have to take along their younger’s to school with them. Therefore, to achieve 100 per cent enrolment of girls as targeted under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and RTE awareness programme for parents through different means is of utmost importance. Teachers and NGOs should be assigned the task to motivate the parents to enroll their daughters in schools, especially the parents who are reluctant to do so. To motivate girls’ special incentive should be given.

Right policy and proper implementation of centrally sponsored schemes like, KGBVs, Pratibha Koj and Residential schools must be ensured.

As mentioned in the previous chapter, Arunachal Pradesh is a late starter in the field of women education. Educational development started only after independence. After 1373, there was a substantial increase in the enrolment of girls at schools in the state. Arunachal Pradesh witnessed the highest percentage of girls’ enrolment in the north-eastern region. But mere enrolment does not mean women education. Women education should make tribal women aware of the immediate environment and the methods available for bringing about changes (Patel, S. 1991). In this background, the present study has great implications on:

(i) To analyze the pace of development of women education in Arunachal Pradesh.

(ii) Second, the study gives an idea of enrolment of the girl students at elementary, secondary, and senior secondary schools, hence, this study has great bearing on the universalization of elementary women education and other educational interventions like – SSA, RMSA.

(iii) Third, the study has its implication in controlling the rate of wastage and stagnation among the girl students at different levels in Papumpare, West Kameng, East Siang and Tawang districts of Arunachal Pradesh.

(iv) Fourth, the study helps in ensuring the quality of women education in the state.

(v) Fifth, the study has an educative value for developing the curriculum, which really takes care of the requirement of girl students along with the male students of the state.

(vi) Sixth, the present study provides scope to take care of the various problems, which the girl students are facing in different districts of Arunachal Pradesh.

(vii) Seventh, it has its implications on the improvement of the attitude of the people towards women education in Arunachal Pradesh.

Findings and conclusion of the study of women education in Arunachal Pradesh
5 (1 vote)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.