The present chapter has been devoted to methodology and design, which was followed for the completion of this study. Since, the study concerns with historical and present situation of women education, various documents relating to women education in Arunachal Pradesh has been explored and those documents are stated as follow:
(i) Statistical handbook of Arunachal Pradesh, East Siang, Papumpare, West Kameng and Tawang district (1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001).
(ii) Enrolment records of girls’ at School level (1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99).
(iii) Educational Surveys of 1999-2000, 2000-2001.
(iv) Gazetteer of Arunachal Pradesh Tawang, West Kameng, East Siang and Papumpare district.
(v) Records of enrolment from schools, of Tawang, West Kameng, East Siang and Papumpare (1995-2001).
Secondly, the study intended to cover the present status of women education at elementary, secondary and senior secondary school levels. Therefore, the required data pertaining to enrolment, wastage and stagnation of girl students at the different level of women education in Arunachal Pradesh has been collected.
Population and Sample
The population of the present study covers the total number of primary, middle, secondary and senior secondary schools in Papumpare, East Siang, West Kameng andTawang district of Arunachal Pradesh. From all these districts, a sample of 130 primary schools, 43 middle schools, 12 secondary schools and 10 senior secondary schools, were selected by adopting the random sampling technique. From all 195 institutions, a sample of 210 teachers were drawn. The district-wise distribution of selected teachers is shown in Table 3.1.
Similarly, a sample of 210 parents from four districts of Arunachal Pradesh was selected for knowing their attitude towards women education.
Keeping in view the main objectives of this study, following tools were developed and used:
(i) Questionnaire for identification of problems of elementary school girl students.
(ii) Questionnaire for identification of problems of secondary and senior secondary school girl
(iii) Attitude scale for teachers and parents to measure their attitude towards women education.
Questionnaire to Identify the Problems of Elementary School Girl Students
A questionnaire contains the questions relating to various problems like— transportation facilities, library, teacher related, teaching aids, women education system, medium of instruction, curriculum, finance, discipline, etc. Editing of the questionnaire was taken care by three content experts and two language experts. Finally, the draft remained with 24 questions in all.
Preliminary survey was done by selecting 50 girl students studying at elementary school stage. The validity of the questionnaire was established in view of the topic (elementary schools) under investigation by three content experts. Finally, the reliability of the questionnaire was found out by adopting the test-retest method and the coefficient of reliability came out to be .83, which seems to be quite satisfactory.
Questionnaire to Identify the Problems of Secondary School Level Girl Students
By adopting the same procedure, the questionnaire to identify the problems of secondary and senior secondary school level girl students were developed.
Attitude Scale for Teachers and Parents
An attitude scale to measure the attitude of teachers and parents towards women education were constructed and standardized. At first, 35 statements were collected, which express opinion towards women education. All the statements got edited by subject and language experts. After the completion of the editing work, 24 statements were kept in the draft of this attitude scale.
The preliminary draft of 24 statements was administered on a sample of 40 teachers. Each statement, in this attitude scale, was followed by five responses such as SA, A, U, D and SD. The respondent was to put the (V) marks on any one option as per her/his willingness. The weightage for the positive statement was given 4, 3,2,1 and 0 points to SA, A, U, D and SD and for negative statement 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 against SA, A, U, D, SD respectively. The total of all the 24 statements was considered the score of teachers on the attitude scale. The minimum score of a teacher could be 0 (24 x 0 = 0) whereas, the maximum score on this attitude scale could be 96 (24 x 4 = 96). An average score on their attitude scale was expected to be 48 (24 x 2 = 48). The preliminary draft of 24 statements was administered on a sample of 40 teachers and 40 parents. The scoring work was done as per the weightage, which has been reflected in the previous step. The t-value of all the 24 statements were found greater than 1.75 because of which all the 24 statement were retained in the final draft of the attitude scale which measures the attitude of teachers and parents towards women education.
Finally for computing the reliability of the attitude scale, test-retest method was used. The coefficients of reliability came out to be 0.95, which indicates quite a high amount of coefficients of the reliability of this attitude scale. The content validity of the scale was taken care by seeking the opinion of the content experts.