The girls are very useful at home for carrying out domestic duties and so mothers are reluctant to send them to school. A large number of children in the rural areas are undernourished. They hardly have a square meal a day. Unless the parents are given some kind of economic relief, it will be impossible to achieve the targets. In India, the vast majority of the population is poor.They cannot afford to give education to all their children. When the choice comes, they prefer to invest on the education of sons, rather than their daughter. It is believed that the sons will side with the father in old age and on the other hand after some time the girl will get married. She will go to some other family. Therefore, do not care much for women education.
Many societies and a vast population in India still believes that proper place for women is to remain at home, serve the husband and his family and give birth to the children. This function can be performed irrespective of the fact whether the girl is educated or not. In fact, they feel that educated women begin to get some enlightens and start demanding. Especially in a poor section of the society they are required in bring potable water, take food to fields for parents engaged in work and look after their young siblings, besides some are required to work as paid and unpaid workers.
The marriage of girls is a determining factor in women education. Particularly early marriage in UP, MP, Bihar, Rajasthan and Gujarat has been responsible for depriving girls from attending classes. Millions of literate girls are given a way in marriage even before they are in their teens. Today, however, early marriage is not so common and women education has been encouraged by its increasing demand in their marriage markets especially among the upper and middle classes. Thus due to socio-economical reasons, women in India are still not coming in as much in number in the educational institution. The task ahead is difficult. The very fact is also that education among women education in urban India is widespread and more and more number of women is going to school and colleges.
In India, women education has been linked with employment. In other words, the children are educated simply because they are to get some employment. Those people who are not in favour of sending their daughter for employment do not feel the necessity of educating them.
Lack of Girls School or Co-educational Aspects
The numbers of women’s educational institutions is much less as compared with institutions engage education in the spread of male education. Therefore in many cases, particularly in remote the village the women are supposed to travel some distance, before reaching an women education institution. Many people do not like that their daughter should leave the village for going to school. Many people still condemn and dislike the idea of co-education. They feel that when both boys and girls study together in a same educational institution, corruption is bound to breed. They, therefore, are not prepared to send their daughter to a co¬education institution.
Lack of Adequate Education Facilities
Non-availability of a school within walking distance of the girls, particularly in backward areas and the unwillingness of many parents to send their daughter to mixed schools beyond the age of 9 plus. Lack of separate sanitary facilities for girls in the mixed schools and lack of suitable school buildings and equipment which tend to create a poor school environment and the crisis of no of girls’ hostel in near the schools.
Lack of Women Teachers for Women Education in India
The lack of women teachers in primary and middle schools has been very largely responsible for the low enrolment of girls, especially in the nine backward states. It is an accepted fact that the primary schools should be staffed by women teachers. At present the proportion of women teachers to men teachers is very low.
Lack of Supervision and Personal Guidance for Women Education
The development of women education in the different States have been seriously hampered because of the inadequate machinery to look after the various programmes in this field which require concentrated attention, special care and individual guidance. The number of lady officers is far too small to shoulder the responsibility of speeding of the progress of women education as envisaged in our plan. The officers are poorly staffed and ill-equipped. They do not have suitable conveyance facilities which would help in maintaining regular contacts within their field of work.
Social Adult Women Education
The problems of women enrolment is very closely connected with the problem of social women education of adult women. In fact, the success of women education depends in a very large measure on the successful implementation of social women education programmes for adult women, especially in rural areas. The percentage of literacy for women in India is 65.46%. The figure for women’s literacy in rural areas is much less. The ignorance of women and the lack of communication create mental barriers and shunt out a very large percentage of adult women from the outside world.
Lack of Adequate Incentives for Women Education
The poor enrolment position of girls, especially in backward areas, cannot be improved unless special incentives are provided. Special schemes sponsored by the government of India have been adopted in several states. Although the schemes have been implemented, they do not cover a very wide area and the total results thus fall short of expectation. In order to ensure that these special schemes provide adequate incentives to the students, it is necessary that they are adopted in larger measures and over a wider geographical area with special priority to the backward districts or pockets.
Defective Curricular and Policies of Women Education
Although equality of sex has been enshrined in the Constitution and guaranteed in the laws of the land, there has been gender bias in curricula provisions. The topics have been given in the text-books depicting girls as home makers, wives and mothers. Even in some states Mathematics is given as an Optional subject at the secondary stage. Girls are shown as no-achievers, passive, timid and dependent whereas boys are shown as high achievers, courageous, daring and active participants. The National Policy on Education 1986 has, therefore, suggested for removing sex biases in the curriculum for all irrespective of all barriers. All these factors coupled with ignorance, poverty, and mass illiteracy has contributed to the poor progress in women education.
Women trafficking as the act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving persons through the use of force coercion or deception for the purpose of exploiting them. This concept is accepted internationally but, m our view, it tends to place too much emphasis on movement. We see women trafficking as a form of modern-day slavery, where people profit from the control and exploitation of others. Every country is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination. It is a lucrative criminal industry, second only to drug trafficking, generating billions of dollars annually. A wide range of trafficking occurs in which this is not the case. Often, there are much more subtle forms of coercion or force within families and communities. Broadly speaking, there are two main types of women trafficking: sex trafficking and labour trafficking. The latter type includes things like domestic servitude, field labour, child soldiers, factory labour, bridal and reproductive slavery, and organ trade etc.
The term girls’ child labour is often used synonymously with ’employed girls child’ or ‘working girls child’. In this sense, it is co-extensive with any work done by a child for a gainful purpose. Children are engaged in various forms of activities ranging for help in domestic work; work in a household enterprise to wage work. It is necessary to draw a line between child labour one hand and activities considered as a part of the socialisation process on the other, where children could combine other child hood activities with the limited work roles assigned to them.
The work that impinges on a child’s right to women education, play, leisure besides his mental, physical, spiritual and psychological development is child labour. Many other problems are there in our present time like the distance of school and college from house, illiterate family members, child marriage and different social barriers, the problem of co-education, lack of social awareness, social discrimination, lack of trained teachers, examination system defective, monitoring methodology and attitude of young man. (Mondal, O.K. et. al., (2009), Aggarwal, J.C., (2003), Mohanty, J. (2004), Nayak, B., (2013) and Manjrekar, N., (2003).