Women Entrepreneurs

Women Empowerment and Women Entrepreneurs: Review of the Literature

Jena (2011) undertook the sample cases of 225 on micro women entrepreneurs (indigenous artisans) from KBK districts of Odisha to study their socio-economic women empowerment with the advents of micro enterprises. He observed that the micro enterprises programmes had a positive impact at the household levels, enterprises level and individual levels. He also concluded that the microfinance programmes also helps in the socio-psychological and economic women empowerment in the tribal dominated areas.He observed that the micro enterprises programmes had a positive impact at the household levels, enterprises level and individual levels. He also concluded that the microfinance programmes also helps in the socio-psychological and economic women empowerment in the tribal dominated areas.

M.A. Sudhir et al., (2007) states that world economic profile of women represents around 30 percent of the official labour force, with 60 percent of all working hours, but receives 10 percent of world income and own even less than one percent of the world’s property. This clearly portrays the changing environment and role of women and so also immediate measures to empower them with a view to make them at par with their other counterpart in the society.

Digal (2006), made a comparative study on women entrepreneurs from the two districts and studied various aspects like marital status, education, and economic background responsible for the success of women entrepreneurs.

Hashim (2005), reviewed the importance of micro finance and micro enterprises for economic development of poor people in 2005. He emphasized that institutions like SHGs and their linkage with the banks are very important for extending credit facilities to the poor people. There is a large scope for employment generation in the self-employment oriented activities.

Misra (2000), in his study, sought to find out the social, educational, technical and economic background of women entrepreneurs and the general features of the industrial units run by women in Odisha.

Mahajan and Fisher (1997), found that in the recent past, several promotional schemes have been launched aimed at artisanal micro enterprises in khadi, handlooms, and handicrafts sectors and implemented by various promotional agencies under which artisanal micro enterprises have all received special attention and protection, skill training, subsidized credit, rebates, marketing assistance, etc. However, this protective umbrella has only helped in the preservation of inefficient technologies, low productivity and lack of market orientation.

Moharana and Dash (1996), in their study of small women entrepreneurs of Odisha, found that a majority of sample entrepreneurs were either graduate and above or technically qualified. None of the women entrepreneurs was non-matric or illiterate. The study also revealed a relatively more concentration of higher qualified women entrepreneurs in the non-backward region. They also studied the role of financial institutions, mainly the role of Odisha State Financial Corporation (OSFC) in promoting new entrepreneurship. They have mentioned clearly the importance of SSI and the role of women entrepreneurs in boosting the economy of a state through the financial assistance of financial corporations.

Guisinger, S. and Irfan Mohammed (1980), found that most of the micro enterprises are beset with a multitude of constraints. Some of these constraints include access to credit for starting and sustaining the enterprises, raw material availability, obsolete products, outdated production technology, low managerial skills, limited technical skills, limited growth opportunities, declining markets, increased competition from the organized sector and limited information about dynamics of the sector.

Women Empowerment and Women Entrepreneurs: Review of the Literature
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